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防静电地坪漆 机房地板导电及静电耗散型弹性地板电阻的测试
作者:段进成    发布于:2013-07-29 19:56:11    文字:【】【】【
摘要:ASTM F150-98 美国材料与试验协会标准 导电及静电耗散型弹性地板电阻的测试方法

ASTM F150-98 美国材料与试验协会标准

导电及静电耗散型弹性地板电阻的测试方法

1.  适宜范围

1.1本测试方法适用于医院、计算机机房、洁净室、通道、军需品仓库或其它需防止人体产生静电的场所的卷材或片材弹性地板的导电性(绝缘性)的测试。

1.2本标准无意于标定所有与使用相关的安全关系,而是为标准的使用者建立适合的安全可靠的实践应用与决策时提供优先考虑的规范。

 

2.  参考标准

21ASTM标准

D2240橡胶性能的测试方法-硬度测试

E-177ASTM测试方法在应用中的精确度

2.2其它标准

EOS/ESD-SD7.1地面材料—材料的电阻性能

NFPA 99-1990 设备的维护

联邦测试方法NO.501a,测试方法8311—电传导

Mono #11医院手术室的导/静电地板

 

3.术语

31定义

311导电地板—依照8.1.18.2.1测试所得的平均电阻值在大于2.5×104Ω,小于1×106Ω范围内的卷材与片材弹性地板。若要求8.2.2测试要求平均电阻值不小于2.5×104Ω,个别电阻值不小于1×104Ω的地板。

312静电耗散型地板—依照8.1.18.2.1测试所得的平均电阻值大于1×106Ω且小于1×109Ω范围内的卷材与片材弹性地板。依照8.2.2测试,要求平均电阻值不小于1×106Ω且不大于1×109Ω。

 

4.意义和应用

41导电及静电耗散型地板(防静电地板)是通过与人体或物体的电气连接而防止人体或物体电气静电积聚的一种简便方式。防静电地板对其电阻值是有规定的。地板表面提供了一条人体及设备与地面连通的适当导电路径,以防止静电荷积聚的危害。为使防静电地板发挥有效作用,防静电地板上的工作人员应穿防静电鞋。

42有些地面材料的电阻会随时间变化。这类地板材料应该要求初始电阻足够低或足够高,以使其随时间增加或减少后的电阻值仍不超出前面所述的产品阻值的限制范围(见联邦测试方法NO.501a,测试方法8311)。

导静电与防静电区别

 

5.试验装置

51自动量程电阻表(例如兆欧表)或者其它外形适宜的电流表,要求其测量误差不大于10%,为安全起见,所使用的电源应有电流限制,通常低于5.0mA,这种仪器的测试电压为500+10V100+10V直流电压,或者两种电压都有。测试导线应与地面绝缘。

52电极—A型与B型电极都可使用,但是一对电极必须是同一型号的。

521A型电极—带有与欧姆表连接端子的两个圆柱形金属电极,每个电极重2.27+28g,并且底面是直径为63.5+1.58mm的干燥平整的接触圆面。

522B型电极—两个重2.27+28g的圆柱形金属电极,其直径为63.5+1.58mm,每个电极贴有邵氏硬度为50-70的导电物质(见D2240)。当测试电压为10V或测试金属性表面时要求电极底导电贴垫电阻小于1KΩ。

53A型电极的制备:在平坦、光滑、坚硬的表面上放一张厚0.0127-0.0254mm的铝或锡的薄片,然后在薄片上放一个直径为64mm的橡胶垫,厚度为6.4mm,硬度在50-70(见标准D2440),再把电极放在橡胶垫上,用橡皮圈或强力胶固定锡箔。

 

6.试验样品

61质量(性能)测试—制作样品时,使用绝缘物质作底面(建议用厚6mm的硬质纤维板),按照一般步骤涂粘结剂,接地,然后,安装地板。样品的面积应达到1.22m ×1.22m,测试时,若没有其它要求,样品要作五个不同点的测试,记录的测试值为两位数。

62如果测试样品是现场安装,那么样品的尺寸应不超过6m×6m

 

7.测试环境

71测试样品要尽可能在温度为23+8℃,湿度为50+5%的环境下放置至少24小时,并在这个环境下进行测试。

 

8.试验步骤

81样品性能测试—将6.1所描述的安装好的样品放在不导电表面上,在放电极前先用软布轻擦去所有杂物,电极的接触面,在放置前,要用干净的软麻布沾上含异丙醇不少于70%的水擦拭干净,凉干。安装与测试的间隔时间参照制造商的产品说明书。

811面电阻测试—电极放置在离样品边沿25.4mm处,两电极间的距离为914.4mm。测试电压为500伏或100伏直流电压,施加电压后5秒钟或数字稳定后读数。

812表面对地电阻测试—将兆欧表的正极接线与地相连,而负电极则置于地板的表面上,负电极必须离接电端152.4mm以上,且离嵌在胶粘剂中的接地金属带152.4mm以上,施加电压后5秒钟或数字稳定时读数。

 

82现场测试—在放置电极前先用软麻布轻轻擦去表面所有尘物,电极的表面,在放置前,要用干净的软麻布沾上含异丙醇不少于70%的水擦拭干净,凉干。安装与测试的时间间隔参照制造商的产品说明。

821面电阻测试—电极放置在离地板边沿25.4mm处,两电极间的距离为914.4mm。测试电压为500伏或100伏直流电压,施加电压后5秒钟或数字稳定后读数。

822表面对地电阻测试—电极离任何接地端或地面上的接地物体至少914.4mm。将兆欧表的正极接线与接地端相连,将负电极放在地板表面,测试电压为500伏或100伏直流电压,施加电压后5秒钟或数字稳定后读数。

 

83地板测试,整块地板表面或每46.5m2的面积,不论哪个面积至少做5次测试。5次测试中最少3次的测试应当包括受磨损的,有化学品或水溅落的,有明显沾污的区域。

831周围环境的湿度大小会影响电阻的读数大小。

 

9.试验报告

91样品性能的测试—测试报告应当包括以下内容:

911测试面积、数据、测试点。

912平均、最小、最大的测试电阻及测试电压。

 

92现场测试—测试报告应包括下列内容:

921测试面积、数据和测试点。

922平均、最小、最大的测试电阻及测试电压。

 

10.精确度和误差

101尽管不同测试者的同一点测试存在一定的相互差异,试样变化的范围限制了电信号测试允许的误差。

102在实验室内严格遵照标准E-691ASTM委员会制定的标准的规范可以演示测试误差。这个测试方法计划在19993月完成。

ESD S1.1:1998—Evaluation, acceptance, and functional testing of wrist straps.

ESD STM2.1:1997—Resistance test method for electrostatic discharge protective garments.

ESD STM3.1:2000—Ionization.

ESD SP3.3:2000—Periodic verification of air ionizers.

ESD S4.1:1997—Worksurfaces—Resistance measurements.

ESD STM4.2:1998—Worksurfaces—Charge dissipation characteristics.

ANSI/ESD STM5.1:2001—Electrostatic discharge sensitivity testing—Human body model.

ANSI/ESD STM5.2:1999—Electrostatic discharge sensitivity testing—Machine model.

ANSI/ESD STM5.3.1:1999—Charged device model (CDM)—Component level.

ESD S6.1:1999—Grounding—Recommended practice.

ANSI ESD S7.1:1994—Floor materials—Resistive characterization of materials.

ANSI ESD S8.1:1993—ESD awareness symbols.

ESD S9.1:1995—Resistive characterization of footwear.

ESD SP10.1:2000—Automated handling equipment.

ANSI ESD S11.11:1993—Surface resistance measurement of static dissipative planar materials.

ESD STM11.12:2000—Volume resistance measurement of static dissipative planar materials.

ANSI ESD S11.31:1994—Evaluating the performance of electrostatic discharge shielding bags.

ESD STM12.1:1997—Seating-resistive characterization.

ESD STM13.1:2000—Electrical soldering/desoldering hand tools.

ANSI ESD S20.20:1999—Standard for the development of an ESD control program.

ESD STM97.1:1999—Floor materials and footwear—Resistance in combination with a person.

ESD STM97.2:1999—Floor materials and footwear voltage measurement in combination with a person.

AFLCR 65-8:1998—Maintenance—Engineering and supply: Electrostatic discharge (ESD) control program.

ANSI C63.14:1998—American national standard dictionary for technologies of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic pulse (EMP), and electrostatic discharge (ESD)—Dictionary of EMC/EMP/ESD terms and definitions.

ANSI C63.16:1993—American national standard guide for electrostatic discharge test methodologies and criteria for electronic equipment.

ANSI N322:1997—American national standard inspection, test, construction, and performance requirements for direct reading electrostatic/electroscope–type dosimeters.

ANSI T1.308:1996—Central office equipment—Electrostatic discharge immunity requirements.

ASQ P672:1996—Auditing ESD and cleanroom processes.

ASTM D257-78—Standard test methods for dc resistance or conductance of insulating materials.

ASTM D991-83—Standard test method for rubber properties—Volume resistivity of electrically conductive and antistatic products.

ASTM D5077-90:1997—Standard terminology relating to electrostatic discharge (ESD) packaging materials.

ASTM E1549-95:2000—Standard specification for ESD-controlled garments required in cleanrooms and controlled environments for spacecraft for nonhazardous and hazardous operations.

ASTM F150-98—Standard test method for electrical resistance of conductive and static dissipative resilient flooring.

ASTM F1812-97a—Standard test method for determining the effectiveness of membrane switch ESD shielding.

Bellcore GR-1421-CORE:1995—Generic requirements for ESD-protective circuit packet containers.

BS 6654:1985—Method for determination of the electrical resistivity of textile floor coverings.

BS EN 100015-2:1994—Basic specification—Protection of electrostatic-sensitive devices—Requirements for low-humidity conditions.

BS EN 100015-3:1994—Basic specification—Protection of electrostatic-sensitive devices—Requirements for cleanroom areas.

BS EN 100015-4:1994—Basic specification—Protection of electrostatic-sensitive devices—Requirements for high-voltage environments.

BS EN 1149-1:1996—Protective clothing—Electrostatic properties—Surface resistivity (test methods and requirements).

BS EN 1149-2:1997—Protective clothing—Electrostatic properties—Test method for measurement of the electrical resistance through a material (vertical resistance).

BS EN 1718:1999—Light conveyor belts—Test method for the measurement of the electrostatic field generated by a running light conveyor belt.

DI-ATTS-80285B:1997—Engineering support data (ESD).

DI-RELI-80669:1992—Electrostatic discharge (ESD) control program flag.

DI-RELI-80671:1992—Handling procedures for electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitive items.

EIA 471:1980—Symbol and label for electrostatic sensitive devices.

EIA 541:1988—Packaging material standards for ESD-sensitive items.

EIA 541:1990—Packaging of electronic products for shipment.

EIA 545:1989—Electromechanical switch test method for electrostatic discharge (ESD).

EIA 625—Handling electrostatic discharge sensitive (ESDS) devices.

EIA-JEP 108—Distributor requirements for handling electrostatic discharge sensitive (ESDS) devices.

EOS/ESD EP102:1988—Electrostatic discharge and electronic equipment: A practical guide for designing to prevent ESD problems.

EOS/ESD EP103:1990—ESD program management: A realistic approach to continuous, measurable improvement in static control.

EOS/ESD EP105:1995—ESD in silicon integrated circuits.

ESD 1:2000—General practices for ESD control for MR and GMR heads.

IEC 60801-2:1991—Electromagnetic compatibility for industrial-process measurement and control equipment—Electrostatic discharge requirements.

IEC 61000-4-2:1995—Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)—Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques—Section 2: Electrostatic discharge immunity test.

IEC 61000-4-2:1999—Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)—Part 4-2: Testing and measurement techniques—Electrostatic discharge immunity test.

IEC 61087:1991—Guide for evaluating the discharges from a charged surface.

IEC 61340-1:1998—Electrostatics—Part 1: Guide to the principles of electrostatic phenomena (IEC/101/35/CD).

IEC 61340-2-2 TR3:2000—Electrostatics—Part 2-2: Measurement methods—Measurement of chargeability.

IEC 61340-2-3:2000—Electrostatics—Part 2-3: Methods of test for determining the resistance and resistivity of solid planar materials used to avoid electrostatic charge accumulation.

IEC 61340-3-1:1998—Electrostatics—Part 3-1: Methods for simulation of electrostatic effects—Human body model (HBM)—Component testing (IEC/101/33/CD).

IEC 61340-3-2:1998—Electrostatics—Part 3-2: Methods for simulation of electrostatic effects—Machine model (MM)—Component testing (IEC/101/34/CD).

IEC 61340-4-1:1995—Electrostatics—Part 4: Standard test methods for specific applications—Section 1: Electrostatic behavior of floor coverings and installed floors.

IEC 61340-4-3:1999—Test method for the characterization of electrostatic protective footwear (IEC document 101/62/CD).

IEC 61340-5-1 TR2:1998—Electrostatics—Part 5-1: Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena—General requirements.

IEC 61340-5-2 TR2:1999—Electrostatics—Part 5-2: Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena—User guide.

IEC/PAS 62162:2000—Field-induced charged-device model test method for electrostatic discharge withstand thresholds of microelectronic components.

IEC/PAS 62179:2000—Electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitivity testing human body model (HBM).

IEC/PAS 62180:2000—Electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitivity testing machine model (MM).

IEEE C62.38:1994 (R1999)—IEEE guide on electrostatic discharge (ESD)—ESD withstand capability evaluation methods (for electronic equipment subassemblies).

IEEE C62.47:1992—IEEE guide on electrostatic discharge (ESD)—Characterization of the ESD environment.

ISO/DIS 10605:2000—Road vehicles—Test methods for electrical disturbances from electrostatic discharge.

ISO/TR 10605:1994—Road vehicles—Electrical disturbances from electrostatic discharge.

JESD 22-A114-B:2000—Electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitivity testing human body model (HBM).

JESD 22-A115-A:1997—Electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitivity testing machine model (MM).

JESD 22-C101-A:2000—Field-induced charged-device model test method for electrostatic discharge withstand thresholds of microelectronic components.

MIL-PRF-87893B:1997—Workstation—Electrostatic discharge (ESD) control.

QPL-87893-1:1995—Workstation electrostatic discharge (ESD) control.

RAC SOAR 6:1986—ESD control in the manufacturing environment.

SAE J551/15:1995—Vehicle electromagnetic immunity—Electrostatic discharge (ESD).

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